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Dr. Alexandra Jenkins, PhD, RD, FICN



Dr. Jenkins’ research career started in 1979, in Oxford, where she was part of the research team that developed the concept of slow release carbohydrate and the Glycemic Index. She obtained her BSc from the University of Toronto and completed a dietetic internship at St Michael’s Hospital in 1984. Dr. Jenkins completed her PhD at the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom. The topic of her thesis was “Metabolic Effects of Combining American Ginseng and Viscous Fibre in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes”.

Dr. Jenkins’ major research focus has been the nutritional treatment of diabetes, including the Glycemic Index and its applications in diabetes, cirrhosis, hyperlipidemia.  Her most recent research interest is the use of Salvia Hispanica L., a seed rich in omega-3 adn soluble fibre, and its role in weight loss and maintenance when incorporated in the diet of individuals with type 2 diabetes. She has been an author or co-author on over 100 original publications in peer-reviewed journals, chapters and reviews.

Dr. Jenkins has volunteered extensively for the Canadian Diabetes Association; she chaired both the National Nutrition Committee and the Grants for Applied Research in Diabetes Education, Management and Care Committee and was an Associate Editor of the Canadian Journal of Diabetes. Presently, she has once again joined the National Nutrition Committee. In recognition of her contributions, Dr. Jenkins received the Eli Lilly Graduate Scholarship Award in 2000, and in 2001 a Special Education Award from the CDA.

Dr. Jenkins is a member of the Ontario College of Dieticians, the American Heart Association, the American Diabetes Association, and an elected fellow of the International College of Nutrition.  Dr. Jenkins is a sought-after lecturer on nutritional modification of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes.  Recent speaking engagements have included lectures to the Canadian Diabetes Association, St. Michael’s Hospital, the Federation of Biological Sciences, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, among others.

In addition to her role as Director of Research at GI Labs, she is also a Senior Research Associate at the Risk Factor Modification Centre at St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, where her research focuses on investigating the potential utility of nutraceuticals and functional foods in the treatment of diabetes.

publication Dr. Alexandra Jenkins


Augustin LS, Chiavaroli L, Campbell J, Ezatagha A, Jenkins AL, Esfahani A, Kendall CW. Post-prandial glucose and insulin responses of hummus alone or combined with a carbohydrate food: a dose-response study. Nutr J. 2016 Jan 27;15(1):13.

Jayalath VH, de Souza RJ, Ha V, Mirrahimi A, Blanco-Mejia S, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ, Sievenpiper JL. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):914-21.

Panahi S, Ezatagha A, Jovanovski E, Jenkins A, Temelli F, Vasanthan T, Vuksan V. Glycemic effect of oat and barley beta-glucan when incorporated into a snack bar: a dose escalation study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(6):442-9.

Jenkins AL, Morgan L, Bishop J, Vuksan V. Randomized Clinical Trial in Healthy Individuals on the Effect of Viscous Fiber Blend on Glucose Tolerance when Incorporated in Capsules or into the Carbohydrate or Fat Component of the Meal. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(5):400-5.

Jovanovski E, Peeva V, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Desouza L, Rahelic D, Sung MK, Vuksan V. Modulation of endothelial function by korean red ginseng (panax ginseng c.a. Meyer) and its components in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Cardiovasc Ther. 2014 Aug 32(4): 163-9.

Sauder KA, West SG, McCrea CE, Campbell JM, Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW. Test-retest reliability of peripheral arterial tonometry in the metabolic syndrome. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2014 May;11(3):201-7.

Chiu S, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Carleton AJ, Ha V, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Don-Wauchope AC, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;68(4):416-23

Kendall CW, West SG, Augustin LS, Esfahani A, Vidgen E, Bashyam B, Sauder KA, Campbell J, Chiavaroli L, Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ. Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;68(3):370-5.

Wang D, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Cozma AI, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Mirrahimi A, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on postprandial triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan;232(1):125-33.

Ho H, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, Jenkins AL, DeSouza R, Vuksan V. Effect of whole and ground Salba seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) on postprandial glycemia in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled, dose response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;67(7):786-8.

Cozma AI, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Wang DD, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Diabetes Care 2012 Jul; 35(7): 1611-20.

Wang DD, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. The effects of fructose intake on serum uric acid vary among controlled dietary trials. J Nutr 2012 May;142(5):916-23.

Ha V, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Wang DD, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Dibuono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Hypertension. 2012 Apr;59(4):787-95.

Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Beyene J, Chiavaroli L, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2012 Feb 21;156(4):291-304.

Sievenpiper JL, Chiavaroli L, de Souza RJ, Mirrahimi A, Cozma AI, Ha V, Wang DD, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Beyene J, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TM, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. 'Catalytic' doses of fructose may benefit glycaemic control without harming cardiometabolic risk factors: a small meta-analysis of randomised controlled feeding trials. Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug 108(3): 418-23.

Rahelic D, Jenkins A, Bozikov V, Pavic E, Juric K, Fairgrieve C, Romic D, Kokic S, Vuksan V. Glycemic Index in Diabetes. Coll Antropol 2011, 35: 1363-1368.

Jovanovski E, Jenkins A, Dias AG, Peeva V, Sievenpiper J, Arnason JT, Rahelic D, Josse RG, Vuksan V. Effects of korean red ginseng and its isolated ginsenosides and polysaccharides on arterial stiffness in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2010; 23(5): 469-472.

Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Dias AG, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, Rogovik AL, Hanna A. Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr 64(4): 436-8.

Vuksan V, Panahi, S, Lyon M, Rogovik A, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA. Viscosity of Fiber Preloads Affects Food Intake in Adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2009 Sep; 19(7): 498-503.

Vuksan V, Sung M, Sievenpiper JL, Stavro PM, Jenkins AL, Di Buono M, Lee K, Leiter L, Nam KY, Arnason JT, Choi M, Naeem A.  Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.  Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 2008; 18: 46-56.

Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Rogovik AL, Bazinet RP, Vidgen E, Hanna A. Supplementation of Conventional Therapy with the Novel Grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) Improves Major and Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(11):2804-10.

Dascalu A, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Stavro MP, Leiter L, Arnason JT, Vuksan V. Five batches representative of Ontario-grown American ginseng root (Panax quinquefolius L.) produce comparable reductions of postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007, 85(9):856-64.

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA, Zdravkovic U, Wursch P, Vuksan V. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 56: 622-628, 2002.

Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VYY, Wong E, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Francis T, Jenkins AL, Leiter L, Josse RG, Xu Z. American ginseng improves glycemia in individuals with normal glucose tolerance: Effect of dose and time escalation. Am J Coll Nutr 2000, 73: 753-8.

Wolever TMS, Katzman-Relle L, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Josse RG, Jenkins DJA. Glycemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. Nutr Res 1994;14:651-69.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Wong GS, Josse RG. Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1992;15:562-564.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Buckley GC, Wong GS, Josse RG. Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetes. Diab Med 1992;9:451-8.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:846-54.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Vuksan V, Brighenti F, Cunnane SC, Rao AV, Jenkins AL, Buckley G, Patten R, Singer W, Corey P, Josse RG. Nibbling versus gorging: metabolic advantages of increased meal frequency. N Eng J Med 1989;321:929-934.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Buckley G, Lam KY, Giudici S, Kalmusky J, Jenkins AL, Patten RL, Bird J, Wong GS, Josse RG. Low glycemic-index starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:248-54.

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA, Ferrari F, Collier G, Rao AV, Samuels S, Jones JD, Wong GS, Josse RG. Effect of mustard seed fiber on carbohydrate tolerance. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterol 1987;2:81-86.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Giordano C, Giudici S, Thompson LU, Kalmusky J, Josse RG, Wong GS. Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products: bulgur and pumpernickel bread. Am J Clin Nutr 1986:43;516-20.

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Collier GR, Rao AV, Samuels S, Stewart J. Lange WE. Comparison of gelatin and starch coated guar formulations on the postprandial blood glucose response. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterol 1986;1:279-83.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Josse RG, Wong GS. The glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods. Lancet 1984;2(8399):388-91.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Thorne MJ, Lee R, Kalmusky J, Reichert R, Wong OS. The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: A new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes. Diabetologia 1983;24:257-264.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker HM, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:362-366.


Jenkins AL. The Glycemic Index: Looking Back 25 Years. Cereal Foods World. 52 (2), 51-52, 2007.

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustine LSA, Ludwig DS, Barnard ND, Anderson JW. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003, 78(3 Suppl):610S-616S.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Axelsen M. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76: 266S-73S, 2002.

Jenkins AL. Diet and Hypertension: Is there a new dietary prescription? Can J Diab 26: 347, 2002

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V. Effect of dietary fiber on plasma lipoproteins. In: Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition (Ed: Spiller GA). CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL, pp 401-422, 2001.

Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Xu Z, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Jenkins AL, Arnason JT, Bateman RM, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Francis T, Stavro MP. Ginseng and Diabetes: A new way to use an old medicine. Can J Diab Care 25; suppl 2, 111-120, 2001.

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA. Food and the gut. MEDICINE North America (Gastroenterol), September 1994;508-16.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. Starchy foods and the glycemic index. Diabetes Care 1988;11:149-59.

Jenkins DJA, Rainey-Macdonald GA, Jenkins AL. Dietary fibre and the elderly. In: WHO Publication: Nutrition in the Elderly. Ed. Horwitz A. World Health Organization. 1988.

Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL. The glycemic index, fiber, and the dietary treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1987;6:11-17.

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Thompson LU, Rao V, Francis T. The glycemic index: blood glucose response to foods. In: Dietary Fibre, Basic and Clinical Aspects. Eds. Vahouny G, Kritchevsky D. Plenum Press, New York, 1986, pp. 167-179.

Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJA. The glycemic index. Diabetes Care and Education News 1984;7:1-2.

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